Sanford Kwinter heads the Architectural Theory department at the Institute of Architecture at the University of Applied Arts Vienna (die Angewandte). He has a PhD in Comparative Literature from Columbia University. A theorist and writer, he has held positions at Harvard, MIT, Columbia and Rice Universities in the U.S. as well as at the Staedelschule in Frankfurt and the Architectural Association in London. He was cofounder and editor of the journal ZONE and Zone Books for 20 years. He has written widely on philosophical issues regarding design, architecture and urbanism, and science and technology and was an editorial member of the ANY conferences and publications in the 1990s as well as of the journal Assemblage. He is the author of over 150 articles in a dozen languages. His books include Architectures of Time: Towards a Theory of the Event in Modernist Culture (MIT Press, 2001), Far From Equilibrium: Essays on Technology and Design Culture (Actar, 2008) and Requiem: For the City at the End of the Millennium as well as the forthcoming Soft Systems on the life sciences and their impact on design and What is Energy and How [Else] Might we Think About it? (with Kiel Moe). He writes frequently on the work of young and emerging practitioners in the nascent and transdisciplinary field of experimental spatial practice. He recently curated a university-wide exhibition at Harvard entitled "The Divine Comedy." He was the recipient of an Arts and Letters award in 2013 from the American Academy of Arts and Letters. His current work focuses on recent developments in neurobiology and experience, and paleoanthropology and the origins of form-reading.